Loss & damage has only recently been accepted as a formal agenda item in the climate negotiations. It is now expected to be part of the post 2020 UN Climate Regime to be negotiated by 2015. After years of pressure from a growing number of developing countries, the question of what is to be done about the climate impacts that are not avoided through mitigation and adaptation efforts is thereby, for the first time, squarely before negotiators. This does not necessarily mean that the issue of liability for loss & damage will be resolved in the negotiations, but it means that Parties have agreed to start discussing what should be done about impacts that are not avoided through mitigation and adaptation.
List of 2013 Articles
Transboundary and global environmental threats require collection action. Concretely, this means developing forms of governance that apply common rules, norms and decision making procedures. Ideally, such governance should be resilient in the sense that it is able to persist over time and respond quickly and accurately to new threats. Yet the record of international environmental governance is mixed, at best. Some regimes have effectively addressed the problems at hand, many haven’t, and we still don’t know about the effectiveness of a surprisingly large number of regimes.
In the last 30 years since the initiation of Deng Xiaoping’s market reforms, China scholars have been preoccupied with a single question: Is China developing a civil society? Will the emergence of non-Party organizations eventually challenge the authoritarian context and bring about political liberalization and democracy? The fact that this prospect has not yet materialized is often attributed to the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) strong control of the sphere of social organization and, in particular, to the restrictive regulatory framework that governs the operation of domestic and foreign NGOs.
After the shock caused by the Liberian tanker “Torrey Canyon” accident in 1967 off the United Kingdom coastline, member States of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) established a special international regime aiming at ensuring adequate compensation for victims of pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships.The first instrument concerning tanker pollution was the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, adopted in Brussels on 29 November 1969 and entered into force on 19 June, 1975.
The European continent has a rich rural heritage, shaped over the years by human activities. It is made up of an exceptional variety of land types, reliefs, climates and crops. It is possible to consider that heritage provides a bridge between the past and the present, but it is useless to preserve it unless it can be given a guaranteed future and handed down to future generations.
At the dawn of the 21st century, we slowly and painfully create a globalized international environment, where technology and the energy that powers it become of paramount importance. Indeed, in the context of the Rio+20 Conference in June 2012, the UN Secretary-General referred to a new emerging human right of primordial importance: a right of access to energy, that would enable vulnerable populations to ac-quire access to information and technology and thus escape the vicious circle of exclusion, illiteracy and poverty.